• 周一. 5 月 20th, 2024

赵大雄:中国古籍插图

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9 月 14, 2023 #版画百科

中国古籍浩瀚,内容博大精深。 由于书写时间、地域、形式等的差异,古籍的版本多种多样,成为一个独特的研究领域。 中国古籍在重视内容的同时,也注重字体、版式、装订风格等方面的美观。 尤其是插图的广泛使用。 许多古籍图文丰富,成为赏心悦目的艺术品和版画艺术的奇迹。 本文试图简述中国古籍插画艺术的发展历程,以引起学术界对这一珍贵文化遗产的关注。

1、图像的功能超出了文学的范围

究其根源,文字最初是由图像演化而来的。 中华民族自古以来就重视图文并重,“左图右史”历来为古代文人所推崇。 南宋郑樵在《通志·图解·所象篇》中写道:“古之士为学,有要点,左图右书,搜图书,并索要图画和书籍。因此,我也向依依学习,很容易学,也很容易出成绩。” 图像作为全球通用语言的传播媒介,不仅具有艺术创作和艺术欣赏的价值,而且具有客观性、直观性、见证性、真实性、易于理解等特点。 。 它们可以与文字相比较,并且彼此独立存在; 它们还可以互相补充、互相解释、互相补充、互相延伸。 在法国画家达盖尔于1839年发明银版照相法并制成世界上第一台便携式伸缩木盒相机开创摄影艺术之前,绘画是人类记录历史场景、描绘人物、传达视觉的一种方式。 信息的主要载体。 南朝齐燮和在《古画名录》中指出,绘画有“明谏、兴衰、千古孤寂、图鉴可鉴”的功能。 中国古籍和史书中有大量的例子可以佐证这一点:比如司马迁在《史记·留侯世家》中说:“本以为那人(张良)身材高大,但我一看,像个女人。好姑娘。孔子说:“以貌取人,必将失去羽毛。” 刘侯也说过同样的话。” 班固《汉书·苏武传》云:“思大腿臂之美,故画麒麟阁之人,察其容貌,署官名。 ”的记录。 昭明太子萧统“思文论,览辞林”。 他在自己编着的《文选》序言中评价道:“论者讲精微,铭者讲清序,美者讲美,象者讲美。” 刘长修所著《旧唐书·颜李本传》云:“李本虽有才干,但尤工画画,擅肖像画。 《秦府十八进士图》、贞观《灵言》《秦府十八进士图》后来失传。 清初有人看到此图,说人物均为站立雕像,表情生动。 如此景宗不安,苏轼秃头、胡须、矮胖、丑陋,无不栩栩如生。

以图片为主,辅以必要的文字说明,专门收集图像资料的工具书称为目录或图册。 宋元佑七年(1092年),陆大临编撰的《考古图》,记录了当时宫廷和私人收藏的224件古代青铜器、玉器,开创了记录古代的新风格。文物。 宋宣和五年(1123年)后,王甫撰写了《宣和博古图》30卷,记载了当时宣和殿内皇家收藏的20类839件古代青铜器。 图画详实,考证缜密。 明代嘉靖、万历年间,王启父子王思仪撰写了《三才图会》106卷,分14类。 每个对象都用其图像和解释进行描述。 《四库全书总目》评:“有资格评定的人很多,但过于宽泛贪婪,而且非常杂”。 明万历年间,张聂编撰同类书《书编》127卷,予以补充。 插图,很多反映了明朝的政治和社会状况; 清代震所著《考工记图》两卷,详细介绍了清代乾隆时期先秦古籍《考工记》中的宫殿、车车、兵器、礼乐等。 、梁时政等人编撰的《西清古镜》40卷,记载了清宫收藏的古代青铜器1529件,均临其形制、铭文。 附有《钱录》16卷,记载历代货币。 此后,王杰等人编成《西清续鉴》甲部20卷,记载古代青铜器975件,乙部20卷,记载古代青铜器910件。 另外还有《宁寿鉴古》16卷,记载了清宫收藏的彝族器物600件、镜子101面。 这三本书真假参半。 清代类似的著名图录还有阮元编着的《鸡古斋中鼎彝器集》、王昌编着的《金石铭文》、吴大成编着的《古玉图解研究》等。 乾隆、嘉年年间出版的《清朝皇帝贡图》,致力于描绘外国使节和我国少数民族人物形象,造型生动,服饰精美。 《芥子园画传》从最初的编撰、增补、再版到再版,广为流传,几乎跨越了整个清朝,是一部涵盖中国各个艺术门类的完整国画技法图集。画山水、花鸟、虫鱼、人物等。 图册和目录无疑为人们根据图片查找、查看历史背景中特定事物的形象提供了便利。

在古代,书籍用来指地图、法律、户籍等文件。 战国时期,荆轲刺杀秦王,“随延都康图行,秦王设图,图贫,以匕见之”。 《史记·萧相国世家》记载:“裴公到了咸阳,诸将都竞相夺走金帛财宝,分于宫中,何先收相国书?”秦的皇城、史律、命令?……汉王因此知道天下最坚固的城池,户籍的多少,人民的强弱,人民的疾苦,又如何?能得到秦书吗?” 地图制作为历代所重视,其中代表作有西晋裴休的《愚公方图》、中唐贾丹的《愚公方图》、《中国华夏图》、《中夷图》等。很快。 明嘉靖年间,罗洪宪在元代朱思本绘制的《禹图》的基础上,补充修改了《光禹图》。 这是我国现存最早的版块地图集。 清康熙四十七年至五十八年(1708年—1719年)编撰的《皇家地图全图》,是第一幅用现代方法绘制的中国完整地图。

私人印章也可以称为书籍。 青云派篆刻名家巨履厚在《乾隆年间印章考证》中写道:“古人皆以印存图书,故名书印。故今官印为还是叫印章,私印就叫印书。” 我国现存最早的印学专着是宋王厚植的《汉晋印图集》。

综上所述,我们不用图也能明白古书的确切含义。 本文讨论的是古籍中以文字为主、图像为辅的插图。 从阅读功能来看,文本叙事是为了引发读者的想象力,拓展内容; 而插图则通过视觉形象直接刺激人们的感官,满足读者的审美需求,加深对文字的理解。 鲁迅先生曾在《南墙北调集》中精辟地指出:“书籍插图的本意是为了装饰书籍,增加读者的兴趣。但那种力量可以补充文字所不能做到的,所以它是一种宣传。”海报。” 下面,笔者试图以时间的变迁、朝代的更替为基础,以书籍的出版为纬,探讨中国古代书籍插图的演变,但难免一切都会错过。

2、书籍齐称,历史悠久。

我国最早出现的书籍是写在竹简或木版上的,称为简、碑。 木碑与竹简相比呈方形,常被用来绘制地图,因此后世被称为领地。 在竹简、木简流行的同时,也出现了用丝织物书写的书籍,称为帛书、帛书、素书、帛书。 1942年发现的战国楚国古卷,既有文字又有图画。 叶德辉的《树林清华》引用徐康的《往事梦影录》云:“吾说古人并指书籍,每本书必有图画。” 《汉书·艺文志》中的论语有《孔子弟子图》卷二,涵盖了孔子弟子的画像。无量寺石刻的七十二弟子画像,多是他的遗作。 《兵书》所记载的各家技艺,均附有图画。《隋书·经记志》礼器,有《周礼图》十四卷。又注:“梁佑有二卷, 《郊祀图而死》。又收录郑玄、汉末官员阮臣的《三礼图》9卷。《论语》有郭璞的《尔雅图》10卷。 又注:“梁游《尔雅图》二卷,郭璞着。卒。” 晋陶潜诗曰“山海流水观”,(作者注:古本《山海经》,附插图,又称《山海经》。晋代郭璞曾注释并着有《山海经图赞》一卷。)他是一切古书的作者。 自从定型开始,顾就只有“图单”。 “《女传》还只有一本。” 叶德辉补充道:“徐未曾见过的有元大德版的《图女传》、元班的《前后寻神图集》,以及明代仇英的《画女传》。 《画中女子传》、明代顾鼎臣的《第一状元图考》、《慧珍补录》等。

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《画女传》

魏晋南北朝时期出现了大量图画书籍。 南朝宋元徽元年(473年),秘书程王建上奏《七记》奏疏,其中一张是地图,打破了刘歆《七略》的旧惯例,包括书,但不是图片。 原书已失。 南朝梁阮孝胥着有《齐录》,收书六万二千八百一八种,四万四千五百二十卷。 内章图画770卷,外章图画100卷。 原书已佚,《光鸿明记》仅存序。 唐高宗显庆元年(656年),三十卷《隋书》在长孙无忌监修下完成,并附于《隋书》。 内含《经籍志》4卷,是东汉至初唐古籍流通情况的总结。 《隋书·经籍志》将诸书分为四部分,直接标出了“经”、“史”、“子”、“集”四大类。 其中记载的插图不下百种,尤其是经书《孝经》、《子》中的史地杂传、天文历法、医方等。 唐代以前,文字没有印刷,插图都是手稿,直接在纸上画图。

我国历史上最早的刻印文字记载是隋开皇十三年(593年)的一道圣旨,其中提到“毁像经书,须刻”。 明胡应林《少室山房毕聪·经济会》《通》云:“吾谓隋刻塔造像,因六朝佛教崇拜,不如雕塑”。唐代中叶以后,开始逐渐采用这种方法刻书,五朝时已开展,盛于宋代,现正处于鼎盛时期。 敦煌经洞《金刚经》扉页画和唐咸通九年(868年)刻的《金刚经》据说是世界上现存最古老的一部。 木刻艺术品。 印刷品墨色均匀,图形繁而不繁。

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《金刚经》扉页画《法图》

咸庆四年(659年),苏敬、长孙无忌等人编撰的《新修本草》,首次引入药用图谱,开创了药学著作图文对照的先例,包括经籍20卷,药图、图鉴25卷。 全书7卷,目录2卷。 遗憾的是,宋代以后药图和插图就失传了。 唐元和八年(813年),李吉甫着《元和郡县图录》四十卷,分唐十道、四十七镇。 每个城镇都有一张地图,列在本章开头。 遗憾的是,宋代以后,插图也失传了。 。 鲁迅先生在《木版年谱·笑吟》中说:“中国木版画,自唐代至明代,有着非常令人尊敬的历史。”

宋代是我国印刷出版史上的一个重要时期。 北宋中期雕版印刷更加普及,活字印刷也出现了。 官雕、私雕、作坊雕刻都十分繁盛,气势空前,制作精美。 孙从田《藏书笔记》云:“若南北宋印本,纸筋不同,书画手古而苍劲,墨淡而纸青润,则有”。展开卷轴,令人惊叹不已。所谓墨香纸润,清雅古劲,乃宋刻之最精妙。” 因此,宋代洛阳纸价格昂贵,深受藏书家的喜爱。 宋代的版画除了广泛用于宗教经典之外,还散见于其他类型的书籍中。 比如开宝年间刻制的五千卷经史书籍,《毛诗》、《周礼》、《尚书》、《论语》、《荀子》、《道德经》、《南华经》等,都有木刻插图相配。 吴惠飞、黄松年等人编撰的《六经图》有插图309幅,素有“图像精美,字纸优美”之称。 宋庆历四年(1044年),宋仁宗批准出版了《武经总要》二卷,每卷二十卷。 营阵和武器两部分均附有大量插图,为探讨我国中古时期军事科学和物质文明的发展提供了宝贵的视觉证据。 嘉佑八年(1063年),建安余志安亲友堂刻《古代女子传》,共123幅。 “字体行云流水,图画特别精美。” 宋元佑三年(1088年),天文学家、药理学家苏颂组织修建了水上仪器平台,并撰写了《新仪器与符号》,解释了其结构和制造,描述了150多个仪器。各类机械零部件,并附图片60余张。 。 书中的五幅星图也是我国保存最早、最完整的星图之一。

宋代年轻太监李杰奉命编撰《楼法实》三十六卷。 始编于熙宁中,成书于元佑六年(1091年)。 绍圣四年再次修订,元符三年完成,崇宁二年(1103年)刻本出版。 分为《法式》28册、《图画》6册、《寻找细节》1册、目录1册。 堪称中国古籍中最全的建筑技术书籍。 宋子建刻经史,最重医书,为人所买。 据《宋史·艺文志》记载,宋代医书中插图最多。 如《孙思邈志草图》、《崔氏产品鉴定图》、《本草图解》、《正雷本草》、《黄帝明堂灸经》、《同仁针灸图解经》、《疾病检测指南》等宋理宗淳佑七年(1247年),宋慈编撰了图鉴《洗冤集》5卷,开创了法医学的先河。 宋代农业科学蓬勃发展,出现了《乐书》(曾安兴着的水稻品种专着)、《菌书》(陈玉仁着)、《通书》(陈竺着)、《农耕》等。和织图”(楼望寿、刘松着)。 (文字和插图)以及其他通过图文并茂宣传农业知识的书籍。 南宋末年陈元良编撰的《石林广记》是一部日常百科全书式的民间书籍。 胡道经在元代《石林广记》影印本序中指出:“《石林广记》在诸古籍中独树一帜,它有两个主要特点:一是包含较多的市场情况,二是内容丰富。”其次,为准书籍承载插画开辟了道路。” “真正的带插图的准书,其实是陈元良创作的。《石林广记》有乐谱和地图,但也有很多图像和动作的插图……虽然这些图画得很粗糙,但它们还是比什么都没有好。”

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《尚书》

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《武术总要》

金代的平水是我国北方刻书的中心。 陈树轩的《铜人面针图鉴》、张骞的《新图勘地理书》、张骞的《新图勘地理书》等许多图鉴书籍都是从这里诞生的。 《四美图》、徐嘉庆的《义勇武安宝座》等。金僖宗八年(1148年),金代皇帝完颜丹命平水刻师崔法珍在山西解州天宁寺开始刻制大藏经。 竣工于金大定十三年(1173年)。 共刻佛经6000多卷。 因金刻大藏经于1933年在山西省赵城县发现,故被称为“赵城藏”。 每卷经文前面都有扉页画,线条生动,风格豪放。

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《同仁面穴针灸图鉴》

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《四张美丽的图画》

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插图来自《赵成藏》

元代,雕版印刷业有了很大发展,套色开始出现。 木版《七煞大藏经》、《妙法大藏经》等佛教典籍中,有许多雕刻工整的作品。 载于舜帝六年(1340年)无问和尚所著《金刚经注》,红墨套印。 经文用黑色印刷,注释和插图用红色印刷。 它比欧洲第一本彩色版画书《梅因斯诗篇》早了170年。 其他重要的插图还有元初中通四年(1263年)薛景时编的《子人一志》,其中图形化地描述了各种织布机的结构、部件和名称; 庆帝二年(1313年)王建编撰。 《农书》出版。 本书的重点部分《农具图册》配有306幅插图,详细讲解了所列农具的起源、结构、演变、用途、优缺点; 年)出版《全乡武王伐纣平话》、《全乡乐邑土其齐春秋七国平话》、《全乡秦六国平话》、《全乡续书平话》 《前汉书》、《全祥续前汉书平话》《三国志》等5种平话,各3卷,上下图。 刻师为吴俊富、黄栓等人。 画面连贯,可以说是我国连环画的前身。 元至顺元年(1330年),蒙古医学家胡思惠总结多年宫廷餐饮经验,编成《营膳正要》,提倡营养、饮食卫生。 书中共有图片168张; 元顺帝二年(1336年)刘健撰写的《切云指南》,共16幅,24幅; 《敖氏金镜录》成书于元朝元年(1341年)。 ,有36张舌头图片。

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《农书》

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《权相三国记》

3、明代插画达到鼎盛

明代的书籍版画插图随着商品经济的空前活跃和资本主义的出现而逐渐完善。 明正统九年(1444年)刻的《圣物图》,用图画来表现孔子的一生故事。 被郑振铎评价为“中国版画史上不可多得的伟大之作”。 “每张版画里都有人物、背景、器物等相当多,但组织得很好,一点也不复杂。” 明万历六年(1578年),李时珍励精图治,编撰了《本草纲目》,收录了本草全集,还收录了药物图片,为我国医学宝库增添了辉煌。进化论鼻祖达尔文称赞《本草纲目》为“中国古代的百科全书”。明宋应星所著的《天工开物》出版于崇祯十年(1637年)。 )。全面系统地论述了我国1892种农业和手工业,并附有1100多张药剂剂型、生产技术和经验图片以及大量插图,与文字完美匹配。梁启超在《中国近三百年学术史》中指出:“《天工开物》用科学方法研究食物、衣服、器皿以及冶金、机械、绘画、珍珠、玉石原料,并附上附图并进行详细说明。 明太子用的教材《明界增和千家世》是一本手抄图鉴。

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《圣物图》

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《天宫开物》

从宋元到明清,社会意识经历了一个从表现情绪到热衷世俗人情的过程。 刻书业也从儒雅经典、正统历史名著的殿堂走向世俗多彩的市民生活。 明代中叶,由于名家创作稿本的投入,版画技术的进步,以及民间民间文学的繁荣,版画的普及,特别是戏曲小说插图的普及,取得了很大的成就。的发展并成为时代的艺术潮流。 到了鼎盛时期。 明代刻画主要集中在建安、苏州、南京、新安、杭州、北京等地。 版画一直与各地的书籍刻版业有着密切的联系。 书籍雕刻行业的中心往往是印刷品的生产地。 因此,明初建都南京,后迁至北京。 北方和南方都成为版画生产的中心。 宋元时期的福建建安、浙江杭州是书籍刻版中心,至今仍是版画重镇。 元代建安风格流行于明代南北都城。 内容多为戏曲传说,构图具有舞台效果,风格简洁,线条有力,景色古朴,人物生动。 万历九年(1581年)南京出版的《望商御决集》中的插图颇具代表性。 于香斗三台堂,建安最著名的书店之一,编着图文并茂的《四游记》、《万国传》、《英雄烈士传》、《越王传》、《官案传》 《历代皇帝与明朝》等,闻名于世。 郑振铎先生在《西递书画·子列国传》中说,于香斗的书有一个特点:“继承了宋元以来建安本的形式,特别注重‘插图’。 ,就像现在印刷的一样,就像一幅“漫画图”,上层有插图,下层有文字,既有图片又有文字。

《水浒传》在万历年间开始在各种版画中配有插图。 建安本有上图、下图,并从万历十七年(1589年)《天都外相序》开始,有整版大版。 插图多达100至120幅。 明朝万历年间,插画艺术达到顶峰。 这一时期,徽派版画异军突起。 徽派版画自15世纪以来已享誉世界,以黄应林、王忠信及其家族为代表。 明清时期,新安黄氏刻书200多册,刻人数百人,推动了版画艺术从粗犷走向精湛。 万历三十年(1602年)起刻《养正图》、《古书刻》。 从《列女传》、《人经阳秋》开始,徽派进入了成熟的黄金时期。 Its style is exquisite and beautiful, with soft lines, slender characters, vivid expressions, both indoor and outdoor settings, and more densely detailed depictions It is exquisite and beautiful. Representative works include “Cheng’s Ink Garden” painted by Ding Yunpeng and engraved by Huang Lian, “Huansha Ji” engraved by Huang Yikai, “Shengming Zaju” engraved by Huang Zhenru, “Peony Pavilion” engraved by Huang Yifeng, etc. In the Huizhou style, the style is elegant, skillful and Under the vivid influence, the print illustration art of Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and other book engraving centers also formed their own characteristics. Hangzhou prints are famous for their beauty and luxury, Suzhou prints are famous for their small and delicate prints, and Nanjing prints were primitive at first, but later due to their location close to Huizhou, Its style is also similar to that of the Hui School. At that time, because of the exquisite painting, engraving and printing of Hui School prints, booksellers from all over the country paid heavily to hire Hui School engravers and painters. Hui School booksellers, painters and engravers also came The establishment of offices in Ningxia, Suzhou and Hangzhou has created a more mature style in communication and competition.

It is characterized by more natural character expressions and interrelationships, good at depicting characters’ psychology delicately, and using scenery to set off the atmosphere. Typical works include: Xin’an Huang Yibin’s “Beauty Rhymes” engraved in Hangzhou in the 46th year of Wanli (1618); “The Romantic History of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty” published by Suzhou Renruitang in the fourth year of Chongzhen in the late Ming Dynasty (1631), 8 volumes, 40 chapters , author Qidong Yeren, whose name is unknown. The illustrations are exquisite, and the special explanation for “Fan Ling” is: “The embroidered figures in the market are only slightly like human figures, and are only for children to play with. This is a special compilation of a famous penman who expresses the spirit of Adu, and the song is wonderful, and the scroll is full of wonder and beauty. The posture is as vigorous as life, just like Gu Hutou and Wu Daozi opposite. Isn’t it a poet’s rhyme, which is worth admiring on the desk! “In the ninth year of Chongzhen (1636), “The Romance of Sun Pang’s Fighting Spirit” was engraved in Hangzhou by the master of engraving Xiang Nanzhou. , there are 40 illustrations on 20 pages in the front of the book; the illustrations in “Yuefu Wu Sao Compiled Edition” engraved in Hangzhou in the 11th year of Chongzhen by Huizhou engravers Hong Guoliang and Xiang Nanzhou are also very sophisticated.

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《水浒传》

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“The Romantic History of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty”

What needs to be mentioned in particular is that Chen Hongshou (alias Laolian), a figure painter in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, devoted his efforts to book illustrations and made great contributions. For example, the illustrations of “The Romance of the West Chamber”, “Nine Songs of Chu Ci” and “Bo Gu Ye Zi”, “Water Margin Ye Zi”, “Returning to Ci”, etc. were all conceived by him. After outlining the graphics, he handed them over to the skilled craftsmen of the time. Banmo carved. For example, “The Romance of the West Chamber” was engraved by Xiang Nanzhou, with round and smooth lines, depicting vivid artistic images such as Zhang Sheng, Cui Yingying, Matchmaker, etc.; “Nine Songs Picture” was engraved by Huang Zhong, with square and round lines interchangeable, and the great poet Yuan Chunyue The story of worrying about the country and the people is vividly written on the page; “Bo Gu Ye” was written by Huang Zi, and he clearly created some distinguished people with different styles and conducts, with clear love and hatred. “Water Margin Leaves” eulogizes the heroes of the peasant uprising with extraordinary courage. The painter’s design is extraordinary and his carving skills are exquisite and expressive, complementing each other. The illustrations are accurately grasped, the characters are vivid, the composition is wonderful, and the lines are strong, adding to the infinite charm of the literary work. If we say that Qu Yuan, Tao Yuanming, Wang Shifu and other great figures have wonderful pens and beautiful words, then Lao Lian has carved out the moon and cut out the clouds, filling the paper with rosy clouds. This kind of book can be regarded as a model of rich pictures and text. Zhang Geng of the Qing Dynasty spoke highly of Lao Lian’s figure paintings in the “Guo Dynasty Painting Collection”: “The torso is majestic, the clothing pattern is round and thin, and it has the beauty of Gong Lin and Zi Ang. The coloring is based on Wu Sheng’s method, and its strength is… The situation is so unparalleled and upright that it surpasses Qiu (Ying) and Tang (Yin). There has been no writing like this for three hundred years.” How valuable it is that such painters love the art of illustration!

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Illustrations from “The Romance of the West Chamber” by Chen Laolian

After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, many painting manuals with a thematic nature were published for teaching students. The most representative one is “Tang Poetry and Painting Book”, which has 8 volumes and is divided into 8 special topics. There is a painting on the front and a poem on the back. Among them, there are 1 volume each of “Five-Character Tang Poetry and Painting Catalog”, “Six-Character Tang Poetry and Painting Catalog”, and “Seven-Character Tang Poetry and Painting Catalog”, compiled by Huang Fengchi, the master of Jiyazhai, painted by Cai Chonghuan and others, and engraved by Liu Ciquan and others; “Four Scores of Plum, Bamboo, Orchid and Chrysanthemum” “1 volume, engraved by Jiya Zhai, painted by Sun Jixian; 1 volume of “Tang Jieyuan’s Imitation of Ancient and Modern Paintings”, engraved version of Qing Huizhai, with a preface by Tang Yin; 1 volume of “Zhang Baiyun’s Selection of Public Fans”, originally engraved by Qing Hui Zhai, by Zhang Chenglong ( Selected paintings from Baiyun); one each from “Herbal Painting Poems” and “Woody Flowers and Birds”, engraved editions from Jiyazhai.

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“Tang Poetry and Painting Book”

4. The Qing Dynasty inherits the Ming Dynasty and makes things more prosperous.

Illustrated prints of the Qing Dynasty, from the early Qing Dynasty to the Qianlong period, inherited the Ming style and were quite prosperous. As Qian Yong said in “Lv Yuan Cong Hua·Yineng”: “Carvings can be found everywhere, in Ningguo, Huizhou, Suzhou The most prosperous and the most ingenious.” Illustrated versions of operas include “Moon in the Qin Lou”, “Peach Blossom Fan”, “The Matchmaker”, etc.; illustrated versions of novels include “The Romance of the Sui and Tang Dynasties”, “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”, “Water Margin of Loyalty”, “A Dream of Red Mansions” “wait. The plates are complex and dense, and the carvings are crisp, healthy and clear. However, its artistic skill and sophistication are generally slightly inferior to those of the Ming Dynasty. After the Qian and Jia dynasties, Western copperplate and stone printing technologies were introduced, and novels and operas generally no longer used print illustrations.

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“Romance of Sui and Tang Dynasties”

It is commendable that in the second year of Shunzhi (1645), Xiao Yuncong painted and Tang, a famous artist in She County, reproduced the “Li Sao Picture” with ingenious conception and smooth carving; in the seventeenth year of Shunzhi (1660), the engraved version of “Continuation of the Plum in the Golden Vase” has 64 chapters. The illustrations are exquisite and were created by famous printmakers Hu Nianyi, Huang Shunji and Liu Xiaoxian in the early Qing Dynasty. Although the literary value is far from the Chongzhen version of “Jin Ping Mei” (100 illustrations), the level of its illustrations is much higher. The “Collection of Silent Plays” written by Li Yu and engraved in the early years of Kangxi, engraved by Cai Sihuang in Xiaoshan and painted by Hu Nianyi, has the legacy of Chen Laolian. In the 39th year of Kangxi (1700), Zhang Chao wrote 20 volumes of “New Records of Yuchu” in Yangzhou. Volume 19 contains the “Illustrated Notes on the Seven Wonders” by Nan Huairen, a Belgian missionary who came to China in the 16th year of Shunzhi (1659). It not only introduces the Seven Wonders of the world’s architecture in words, but also depicts images, including the statue of Zeus. 。 During the Qianlong period, he also published the imperial engravings of the “Southern Inspection Sacred Scripture Picture”, “Summer Resort Picture Ode”, “Yuanmingyuan Picture Ode”, “Jiangnan Scenic Spots Picture”, etc. In the 30th year of Qianlong’s reign (1765), Fang Guancheng wrote “Cotton Pictures”, advocating cotton planting and cotton textile technology, with a total of 16 pictures and text descriptions. Qianlong greatly praised it and wrote poems on each picture, which became the “Royal Inscription of Cotton Pictures”, which was widely circulated. In the fifty-sixth year of Qianlong’s reign (1791), Cheng Weiyuan’s version of “Dream of Red Mansions” contains 24 illustrations, with interior rooms or courtyards as backgrounds to set off the characters; in the fifth year of Jiaqing’s reign (1800), Tu Shen wrote 20 volumes of “History of Yun”, with 61 pictures on the front of each volume. page, the first embroidered portrait is the author’s portrait; Jiaqing Taoyin Bookstore’s “Yaohua Biography” also has a portrait of the author Ding Bingren and a self-praise in the front volume. In the 20th year of Jiaqing (1815), the Chanbo Pavilion version of “Dream of Red Mansions” by Jingshi Mountain Miner has illustrations imitating Cheng Weiyuan’s version; in the 12th year of Daoguang (1832), “Wang Xilian’s Commentary on Dream of Red Mansions” has 64 illustrations, using flowers and plants to set off the characters; in addition During the Daoguang period, Zhang Yinglin compiled a biography, and Kong Jiyao painted 20 volumes of “Pictures of Famous Sages in Wu County”, engraved with busts of 570 celebrities such as Li Bai and Wen Tianxiang; in the 22nd year of Daoguang (1842), Wei Yuan was entrusted by Lin Zexu to compile Cheng’s 50-volume “Pictures of the Sea” advocated “opening one’s eyes to see the world” and comprehensively and systematically introduced the global geography and historical knowledge he could collect, with a large number of illustrations; during the Xianfeng period, there were three biographies of prints drawn by Ren Xiong. “The Legend of Swordsman”, “The Legend of Yu Yue” and “The Legend of Gao Shi”, the statues are vivid.

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“Picture of Li Sao”

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“Continuing the Plum in the Golden Vase”

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“New Chronicles of Yu Chu”

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《红楼梦》

To list the illustrations of ancient books in the Qing Dynasty, two sets of voluminous volumes must be involved: one is the large-scale book “Collection of Ancient and Modern Books” with 10,000 volumes and a 40-volume catalog. It was originally edited by Chen Menglei and others in Kangxi, and was later re-edited by Jiang Tingxi and others. , printed with copper movable type in the fourth year of Yongzheng reign. It is divided into 6 compilations, 32 classics, and 6109 parts. The content is rich, the distinctions are detailed, and the illustrations are magnificent. The catalogs of mountains, rivers, topography, and famous objects are all carved on wood by good craftsmen and are extremely detailed. The second one was the official compilation of Sikuquanshu, which was opened in the 37th year of Qianlong’s reign (1722) and took 10 years to complete. Ji Ai, Lu Xixiong, and Sun Shiyi were appointed as chief editors, and Lu Feiqi was appointed as chief school officer. There are more than 360 people including editors, branch officers, and supervisors, most of whom are well-educated people. More than 3,800 scribes were also recruited, requiring “neat calligraphy and painting” and “working as scheduled.” “Sikuquanshu” contains 3,503 types of books, 79,337 volumes, and more than 168,000 volumes. In the forty-sixth year of Qianlong’s reign (1782), the first part was completed, and then six parts were copied and stored in seven pavilions. All the illustrations in the collected books are all hand-drawn, which is extremely precious. The project of rewriting the “Sikuquanshu” is huge, and the recording staff all select “those whose calligraphy and painting are exquisite” and “those whose calligraphy and painting are uniform and suitable for note recording will be selected for later use”. Some specialized books, such as the diagrams of ritual vessels and the “Ancient Mirror of the Western Qing Dynasty” “have many drawings”, “Shuowen”, “Han Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Slips” and “Han Li Ziyuan” etc. “Zhongding Ancient Texts” and astronomical algorithm books also involve specialized knowledge, so those who are proficient in painting techniques, six books and pushing images are selected as the records to be specially responsible for their completion. The annotations, eyebrow comments, illustrations, etc. of some ancient books are recorded or traced in various colors of ink, red, blue, and yellow depending on their specific circumstances to make them eye-catching and beautiful.

The illustrations of ancient Chinese books are wonderful treasures that condense, condense and mark the splendid traditional culture of the Chinese nation. They urgently need to be discovered and sorted out. As the ancients said, if the source is clear and the flow is clean, the root will be prosperous and the wood will be prosperous. We call for an endless supply of good books with pictures and texts to spread knowledge, inherit civilization, and benefit society.